Journal of Agriculture & Life Sciences

ISSN 2375-4214 (Print), 2375-4222 (Online) DOI: 10.30845/jals

Bakanae Disease: A New Threat to Rice Production under Temperate Ecology of Kashmir
M. Ashraf Ahangar, Z. A. Bhat, S. Najeeb, Zahoor A. Lone, Sajad H. Dar

In Jammu and Kashmir 26 percent (0.263 million ha) of total area under food grain crops is occupied by rice, out of which Kashmir valley comprises 63% (0.142 million ha). Rice is a major food crop of Kashmir occupying 30% of total area under cereals, and accounting for 35% of total cereal production. In Kashmir valley the impact of diseases on rice production has increased over time. In current rice-cropping environment a few major diseases particularly, rice blast, sheath blight and grain discoloration have caused significant yield losses in rice under temperate agro-climatic conditions of Kashmir. The minor diseases collectively could pose a potent threat to rice production. Estimated annual yield and quality loss in rice due to combination of different diseases is 8- 10 per cent. In the present climate change scenario rice crop is facing the tough competition of new diseases which were otherwise not touching the economical threshold. Furthermore as cultural practices and cropping intensity changed over time, some previously minor diseases became serious problem (Evenson et al., 1998). Bakanae/foot rot disease is emerging as one of the potential threats particularly against cultivated japonica rice under high altitude conditions of Kashmir. The rice genotypes of sub species japonica carrying semi-dwarf (sd- 1) gene are highly susceptible to such disease. Bakanae is one of the most important diseases of rice widespread in many rice growing areas, both tropical and temperate. The yield loss estimated ranges from 10-50 percent (Khokhar and Jaffrey, 2002). The disease is seed as well as soil borne. The types of symptoms produced by an infected plant may depend upon the strain of the fungus and nutritional conditions. Severely infected seedlings die before transplanting, and those that survive may die after transplanting. The anamorph form of the pathogen produces gibberellin and fusaric acid. Biological studies of the two substances showed that fusaric acid causes stunting and gibberellin causes elongation of rice plants (Nyvall, 1999). For the last three years, Bakanae disease incidence was deeply felt at Mountain Crop Research Station, Larnoo located at 2280 m amsl. The gravity of the situation was felt both at farmer’s fields and the Research Station.

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